In an interview in 1985, Diop argued that race was a relevant category and that phenotype or physical appearance is what matters in historic social relations. 1955 publizierte Anta Diop ein Buch über seine Hypothese unter dem Titel Nations nègres et culture (Schwarze Nationen und Kultur).  Diop by contrast in his African Origin of Civilization, argues against the European stereotypical conception. At a UNESCO colloquium in Athens in 1981, he asserted: "I don't like to use the notion of race (which does not exist)... We must not attach an obsessional importance to it. These, he held, formed part of a tapestry that laid the basis for African cultural unity, which could assist in throwing off colonialism.  He concluded that Diop had assumed Egyptian and Wolof were related and then looked for ways to connect their features, disregarding evidence from other languages which might cast doubt on the resemblances claimed. Many academics reject the term black, however, or use it exclusively in the sense of a sub-Saharan type. The African Origin of Civilization: Myth Or Reality, Summary of Cheikh Anta Diop's Work (in French), Cheikh Anta Diop, The Pharaoh of Knowledge, Listen to interviews with Cheikh Anta Diop (in French), Organisation of African Trade Union Unity, Pan-African Freedom Movement for East and Central Africa, Popular and Social League of the Great Sahara Tribes, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cheikh_Anta_Diop&oldid=996943950, National Democratic Rally (Senegal) politicians, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2009, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from March 2016, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. J. D. Walker, "The Misrepresentation of Diop's Views". It is a hazard of the evolution. Diop consistently held that Africans could not be pigeonholed into a rigid type that existed somewhere south of the Sahara, but they varied widely in skin color, facial shape, hair type, height, and a number of additional factors, just like other human populations. Dezember 1923 in Thieytou (oder Tiahitou oder Caytou), im Nordwesten der Region Diourbel (Senegal); † 7. Diop's fundamental criticism of scholarship on the African peoples was that classification schemes pigeonholed them into categories defined as narrowly as possible, while expanding definitions of Caucasoid groupings as broadly as possible. It gained a much wider audience for his work.  Joseph Greenberg rejected Meinhof's and Seligman's views on "Hamite" cultural history, and argued that the term "Hamite" should be completely abandoned, and replaced in linguistics by Afroasiatic languages for the family of five coordinate branches (Semitic, Berber, Ancient Egyptian, Cushitic and Chadic), all of which but the Chadic languages had long been recognised as one group. Sie ist benannt nach dem senegalesischen Gelehrten Cheikh Anta Diop Geschichte der Universität. 79–104 in Fauvelle-Aymar, François-Xavier, Chrétien, Jean-Pierre and, Perrot Claude-Hélène (eds). , Diop's arguments to place Egypt in the cultural and genetic context of Africa met a wide range of condemnation and rejection. Stevanovitch A, Gilles A, Bouzaid E, Kefi R, Paris F, Gayraud RP, Spadoni JL, El-Chenawi F, Beraud-Colomb E., "Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in a sedentary population from Egypt". His cultural theory attempted to show that Egypt was part of the African environment as opposed to incorporating it into Mediterranean or Middle Eastern venues. Research in this area challenges the groupings used as (a) not reflecting today's genetic diversity in Africa, or (b) an inconsistent way to determine the racial characteristics of the Ancient Egyptians. , According to Diop's own account, his education in Paris included History, Egyptology, Physics, Linguistics, Anthropology, Economics, and Sociology. " Diop was highly critical of "the most brilliant pseudo-revolutionary eloquence that ignores the need" for rebuilding the African national consciousness "which must be met if our people are to be reborn culturally and politically. The party was shortly thereafter banned for opposing Senghor's efforts to consolidate power in his own hands. Frank Yurco, "An Egyptological Review", 1996, in Mary R. Lefkowitz and Guy MacLean Rogers. Nach Anta Diop hätten die Schwarzafrikaner nicht nur Zivilisationen (Königreich Benin, Reich von Kusch, Mali, Songhai, Ghana, Swahili, Groß-Simbabwe, Aksum, Kanem-Bornu und insbesondere Ägypten) hervorgebracht, sondern beherrschten sehr früh die Technik der Metallgewinnung und -verarbeitung und hätten dadurch eine fortschreitende Urbanisierung bewirkt und auch eine fortschrittliche Verwaltung entwickelt. Frank M. Snowden, Jr., "Bernal's 'Blacks', Herodotus, and the other classical evidence". Diop contributed an article to the journal: "Quand pourra-t-on parler d'une renaissance africaine" (When we will be able to speak of an African Renaissance?). He examined various fields of artistic creation, with a discussion of African languages, which, he said, would be the sources of regeneration in African culture.  Diop's book "Civilization or Barbarism" was summarized as Afrocentric pseudohistory by academic and author Robert Todd Carroll.. Dakar Dem Dikk est une société de transport urbain au capital de 1.500.000.000.cfa S. O. Y. Keita, "Royal incest and Diffusion in Africa", Learn how and when to remove this template message, "ANKH: Egyptologie et Civilisations Africaines", "Le musée vivant et le centenaire de l'abolition de l'esclavage: pour une reconnaissance des cultures africaines", "The Melanin Dosage Test by Cheikh Anta Diop", Symposium on the Peopling of Ancient Egypt and the Deciphering of the Meroitic Script, "Apportionment of Racial Diversity: A Review", "The Use and Misuse of language in the study of African history", "The use and misuse of language in the study of African history", "The Perpetual Black Liars | Huffington Post", "Contemptuousness of a 'Sub-Saharan Africa'". Title: Precolonial Black Africa Axis 360, Baker & Taylor Books (Firm). These methods it is held, downplay normal geographic variation and genetic diversity found in many human populations and have distorted a true picture of African peoples.. Seligman's Hamitic hypothesis stated that: "... the civilizations of Africa are the civilizations of the Hamites, its history the record of these peoples and of their interaction with the two other African stocks, the Negro and the Bushman, whether this influence was exerted by highly civilized Egyptians or…pastoralists ...The incoming Hamites were pastoral 'Europeans'-arriving wave after wave – better armed as well as quicker witted than the dark agricultural Negroes. As Egyptologist Frank Yurco notes: Diop held that scholarship in his era isolated extreme stereotypes as regards African populations, while ignoring or downplaying data on the ground showing the complex linkages between such populations. Pythagoras soll … " (After his death the university was named in his honor: Cheikh Anta Diop University of Dakar.) Es uno de los historiadores más importante del siglo XXI Alain Froment, 1991. However such conceptions are inconsistently applied when it comes to African peoples, where typically, a "true negro" is identified and defined as narrowly as possible, but no similar attempt is made to define a "true white". This same modern scholarship however in turn challenges aspects of Diop's work, particularly his notions of a worldwide black phenotype. , Diop's works have been criticized as revisionist and pseudohistorical. The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality by Cheikh Anta Diop(1989-07-01) | Cheikh Anta Diop | ISBN: 8601200618983 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. The current structure of the Egyptian population may be the result of further influence of neighbouring populations on this ancestral population, Diop disputed sweeping definitions of mixed races in relation to African populations, particularly when associated with the Nile Valley. Diop supported his arguments with references to ancient authors such as Herodotus and Strabo.  Santiago Juan-Navarro a professor at Florida International University has described Diop as having "undertaken the task of supporting this Afrocentric view of history from an equally radical and 'mythic' point of view". They show close cultural links between Nubia and Ancient Egypt, though the relationship had been acknowledged for years. This symposium generated a lively debate about, but no consensus on, Diop's theories. Ancient Egyptians such as the Badarians show greater statistical affinities to tropical African types and are not identical to Europeans. S. O. Y. Keita, "Early Nile Valley Farmers, From El-Badari, Aboriginals or 'European' Agro-Nostratic Immigrants? Diop attempted to demonstrate that the African peoples shared certain commonalities, including language roots and other cultural elements like regicide, circumcision, totems, etc. While acknowledging the common genetic inheritance of all humankind and common evolutionary threads, Diop identified a black phenotype, stretching from India, to Australia to Africa, with physical similarities in terms of dark skin and a number of other characteristics. Barbujani, et al., "Patterns of Human Diversity, within and among Continents, Inferred from Biallelic DNA Polymorphisms". He was keenly aware of the difficulties that such a scientific effort would entail and warned that "It was particularly necessary to avoid the pitfall of facility. Conversations With Cheikh Anta Diop Cheikh Anta Diop Ces entretiens sont le produit d'une série de conversations enre gistrées au magnétophone à Dakar en février 1976, exactement 10 ans avant la mort de ce savant le 7 février 1986. He holds that the range of peoples and phenotypes under the designation "negre" included those with a wide range of physical variability, from light brown skin and aquiline noses to jet black skin and frizzy hair, well within the diversity of peoples of the Nilotic region.  Diop also argued for indigenous variants already in situ as opposed to massive insertions of Hamites, Mediterraneans, Semites or Cascasoids into ancient groupings. He did not publish his work in subject-specific journals with an independent editorial board that practiced the system of peer review. I attach no more importance to these questions than they actually deserve in modern twentieth-century societies.". The Niger-Congo Family".  Diop devoted most of his study to the structural resemblances between one modern African language, Wolof, and Ancient Egyptian, adding some references to other modern languages. Similarly, the Dynastic Race Theory of Egypt asserted that a mass migration of Caucasoid peoples was needed to create the Egyptian kingships, as slower-witted Negro tribes were incapable. On a bigger scale, the debate reflects the growing movement to minimize race as a biological construct in analyzing the origins of human populations. ix–x) to Obenga.  Since he struggled against how racial classifications were used by the European academy in relation to African peoples, much of his work has a strong 'race-flavored' tint. It's free!  Obenga expressly rejected Greenberg's division of most African languages into the Niger-Congo, Nilo-Saharan and Afroasiatic families, treating all African languages except the Khoisan languages and Berber as a single unit, négro-africain. cit. (1975). Diop's view that the scholarship of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century was based on a racist view of Africans was regarded as controversial when he wrote in the 1950s through to the early 1970s, the field of African scholarship still being influenced by Carleton S. Coon and others. (1970–1972), Égyptien ancien et négro-africain, pp. Gentle, idealistic, peaceful nature with a spirit of justice. , After 1960, Diop went back to Senegal and continued his research and political career. Tourneux (2010), "L'argument linguistique chez Cheikh Anta Diop et ses disciples", pp. Diop, Cheik Anta (1973), in Preface (pp. Froment, Alain, "Origine et évolution de l'homme dans la pensée de Cheikh Anta Diop: une analyse critique", Bruce Trigger, 'Nubian, Negro, Black, Nilotic? The first, "Le Bloc des Masses Sénégalaises" (BMS), was formed in 1961. John G. Jackson and Runoko Rashidi, Introduction To African Civilizations (Citadel: 2001). He specified that he used the terms "negro", "black", "white" and "race" as "immediate givens" in the Bergsonian sense, and went on to suggest operational definitions of these terms. As regards Egyptian religion for example, there appear to be more solid connections with the cultures of the Sudan and northeast Africa than Mesopotamia, according to mainstream research:, Diop considered that it was politically important to demonstrate the cultural and linguistic unity of Africa, and to base this unity on the Egyptian past. He initially enrolled to study higher mathematics, but then enrolled to study philosophy in the Faculty of Arts of the University of Paris. Mehr lesen. , Born in Thieytou, Diourbel Region, Senegal, Diop was born to an aristocratic Muslim Lebu family in Senegal where he was educated in a traditional Islamic school. , The conclusion was that some of the oldest native populations in Egypt can trace part of their genetic ancestral heritage to East Africa. Diop never asserted, as some claim, that all of Africa follows an Egyptian cultural model. UNESCO Symposium on the Peopling of Ancient Egypt and the Deciphering of Meroitic Script. They consider the Egyptians as (a) simply another Nile valley population or (b) part of a continuum of population gradation or variation among humans that is based on indigenous development, rather than using racial clusters or the concept of admixtures. 135 waren hier.  He rejected early 20th century theories that confused race and language, such as those advanced by the linguist Carl Meinhof and the anthropologist Charles Gabriel Seligman. , Diop held that despite the Sahara, the genetic, physical and cultural elements of indigenous African peoples were both in place and always flowed in and out of Egypt, noting transmission routes via Nubia and the Sudan, and the earlier fertility of the Sahara. (24) Jean Vercoutter at the 1974 UNESCO conference. One of Diop's most controversial issues centers on the definition of who is a true Black person. Sie wird auch als Universität von Dakar bezeichnet und mit UCAD abgekürzt. Ferocious, warlike nature with spirit of survival. Craniometric Affinities Considered With Other Data", S. O. Y. Keita.  This critical work constitutes a rational study of not only Africa's cultural, historic and geographic unity, but of Africa's potential for energy development and industrialization. Instead he claims Egypt as an influential part of a "southern cradle" of civilization, an indigenous development based on the Nile Valley. Throughout history, it has been the phenotype which has been at issue, we mustn't lose sight of this fact.  Diop answered critics in chapter 12 of African Origins of Civilization, which is entitled 'Reply to a Critic'. (1977), Parenté génétique de l'egyptien pharaonique et des langues négro-africaines. , BiogrAfrique am 2. Demnach waren viele griechische Wissenschaftler, wie beispielsweise Pythagoras, in Ägypten, um Mathematik zu lernen. 1951 legte Diop seine Dissertation an der Universität von Paris vor. He alleged his critics were using the narrowest possible definition of "Blacks" in order to differentiate various African groups such as Nubians into a European or Caucasoid racial zone. Variation need not be the result of a "mix" from categories such as Negroid or Caucasoid, but may be simply a contiuum of peoples in that region from skin color, to facial features, to hair, to height. Diop's presentation of his concepts at the Cairo UNESCO symposium on "The peopling of ancient Egypt and the deciphering of the Meroitic script", in 1974, argued that there were inconsistencies and contradictions in the way African data was handled. Cheikh Anta Diop (* 29. Greenberg, Joseph H. (1949), "Studies in African Linguistic Classification: I. 531–32. He also stated that opponents were hypocritical in stating that the race of Egyptians was not important to define, but they did not hesitate to introduce race under new guises. Material solidarity – alleviating moral or material misery. These concepts are laid out in Diop's Towards the African Renaissance: Essays in Culture and Development, 1946–1960, and The Cultural Unity of Black Africa: The Domains of Patriarchy and of Matriarchy in Classical Antiquity,, These concepts can be summarized as follows: Zones of Confluence: Meeting or mingling area for the two cradles above, Most anthropologists see commonalities in African culture but only in a very broad, generic sense, intimately linked with economic systems, etc. Rousseau, Madeleine and Cheikh Anta Diop (1948), "1848 Abolition de l'esclavage – 1948 evidence de la culture nègre". , In 1953, he first met Frédéric Joliot-Curie, Marie Curie's son-in-law, and in 1957 Diop began specializing in nuclear physics at the Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry of the College de France which Frederic Joliot-Curie ran until his death in 1958, and the Institut Pierre et Marie Curie in Paris. Wählen Sie aus erstklassigen Inhalten zum Thema Cheikh Anta Diop in höchster Qualität. This is considered to be an indigenous development based on microevolutionary principles (climate adaptation, drift and selection) and not the movement of large numbers of outside peoples into Egypt. Finden Sie perfekte Stock-Fotos zum Thema Cheikh Anta Diop sowie redaktionelle Newsbilder von Getty Images. Darin entwickelte er die Hypothese, dass die alten Ägypter Schwarzafrikaner gewesen seien und dass die von ihnen geschaffene Hochkultur eine originär (schwarz)afrikanische Zivilisation darstelle. , It is held by Keita et al. They hold that such splitting is arbitrary insertion of data into pre-determined pigeonholes and the selective grouping of samples. This modern research also confirms older analyses, (Arkell and Ucko 1956, Shaw 1976, Falkenburger 1947, Strouhal 1971, Blanc 1964, et al.,). Tourneux, Henri (2010), "L'argument linguistique chez Cheikh Anta Diop et ses disciples", pp. " Trigger's conclusions were supported by Egyptologist Frank Yurco, who viewed the Egyptians, Nubians, Ethiopians, Somalians, etc. Er verbrachte 15 Jahre dort und studierte Physik bei Frédéric Joliot-Curie, dem Schwiegersohn von Marie Curie, außerdem übersetzte er auch Teile von Einsteins Relativitätstheorie in seine Muttersprache Wolof. This black, even if on the level of his cells he is closer to a Swede than Peter Botha, when he is in South Africa he will still live in Soweto. Diop strongly refused to enter into any negotiations until two conditions were met. Geburt und Studium. S. Ademola Ajayi, "Cheikh Anta Diop" in Kevin Shillington (ed.). Perhaps Diop's most notable idea is his insistence in placing Nile Valley peoples in their local and African context, drawing a picture of a stable, ancient population deriving much of its genetic inheritance from that context, as opposed to attempts to split, cluster, subdivide, define and regroup them into other contexts. He claimed this put African historical linguistics on a secure basis for the first time. UNESCO, (1978). Cheikh Anta Diop University predates Senegalese independence and grew out of several French institutions set up by the colonial administration. (2006), This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 08:14.  Based on Coon's work, the Hamitic Hypothesis held that most advanced progress or cultural development in Africa was due to the invasions of mysterious Caucasoid Hamites. His research has become under-regarded because he did not accept this academic discipline. For example, when Herodotus wished to argue that the Colchian people were related to the Egyptians, he said that the Colchians were "black, with curly hair" Diop used statements by these writers to illustrate his theory that the ancient Egyptians had the same physical traits as modern black Africans (skin colour, hair type). , Black Africa: the economic and cultural basis for a federated state is the book that best expresses Diop's political aims and objectives. Diop MOUSSA of Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Dakar (UCAD) | Read 5 publications | Contact Diop MOUSSA Diops Leben und Wirken ist das Thema des Dokumentarfilms Kemtiyu. He proposed that African culture should be rebuilt on the basis of ancient Egypt, in the same way that European culture was built upon the legacies of ancient Greece and Rome. A Brief Biography of Cheikh Anta Diop .  Modern physical anthropologists also question splitting of peoples into racial zones. Demba Sy, Papa, "L'itinéraire Politique de Cheikh Anta Diop". The party, though not officially recognized, continued strong political activity along the same lines as the BMS. Critics note that similar narrow definitions are not attempted with groups often classified as Caucasoid. Diop dedicated a book about the IFAN radiocarbon laboratory "to the memory of my former professor Frédéric Joliot who welcomed me into his laboratory at the College de France. Ryan A. Conversely, Ancient Egyptian may be more closely related to languages that cannot be classed as black and/or African than to many négro-africain languages. He ultimately translated parts of Einstein's Theory of Relativity into his native Wolof. He completed his thesis on pre-dynastic Egypt in 1954 but could not find a jury of examiners for it: he later published many of his ideas as the book Nations nègres et culture. , Some critics have argued that Diop's melanin dosage test technique lacks sufficient evidence. Cheikh Anta Diop was considered to be one of the greatest scholars to emerge in the African world in the twentieth century. Such tropical elements were thus in place from the earliest beginnings of Egyptian civilization, not isolated somewhere South behind the Saharan barrier. Cheikh Anta Diop was awarded the Grand prix de la mémoire of the GPLA 2015; and the University Cheikh Anta Diop of Dakar bears his name. Diop wurde 1923 in eine Wolof-Familie geboren. Those who have followed us in our efforts for more than 20 years know now that this was not the case and that this fear remained unfounded. Sanders, Edith R. (1969), "The Hamitic Hypothesis; Its Origin and Functions in Time Perspective". , Diop's work has posed questions about cultural bias in scientific research. von Cheikh Anta Diop , Harold Salemson , Harold J. Salemson ( 26 ) 9,61 € This expanded edition continues Diop's campaign for the political and economic unification of the nations of black Africa. Thierno Diop (Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar) Mbemba Jabbi (Université du Texas) Abdoulaye Kane (Université de Floride) Muhammadu MO Kah (Université américaine du Nigéria et Université de Gambie) Alpha Amadou Barry Bano (Université de Sonfonia) Yacouba Banhoro (Université de Ouaga 1 Joseph Ki-Zerbo) Dialo Diop (Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar) Rahmane Idrissa (Centre d'ét  He did not subdivide what he termed the langues négro-africaines into subgroups or suggest a family-tree for them, but implicitly rejected the language relations proposed by earlier linguists from Meinhof to Greenberg, who are not mentioned in his bibliography. Cheikh Anta Diop in his last lecture in Paris before his definitive back in Senegal in 1960.In that fragment Cheikh Anta Diop links up the well being with the "umbilical cord" which links "black" ancient Egypt to the rest of the continent.  Diop bezog sich in seinen Argumentationen neben eigenen Beobachtungen u. a. auf Herodot und Constantin François Volney und widersprach den Ansichten Jacques-Joseph Champollions zur rassischen Zuordnung der Ägypter. He obtained his doctorate in 1960. Diop, Cheik Anta, translated by Mercer Cook (1974). "The Earliest Semitic Society: Linguistic Data", Interview conducted by Charles Finch III in Dakar on behalf of the. that when the data are looked at in toto, without the clustering manipulation and selective exclusions above, then a more accurate and realistic picture emerges of African diversity. Cheikh Anta Diop was a Senegalese historian, anthropologist, and scholar of Afrocentricity. Seiner Ansicht nach begann der Kontakt zwischen Afrika und Europa nicht erst im 18. However, Diop thought, as it is called, is paradigmatic to Afrocentricity.  As regards the key Badarian group, a 2005 study by anthropologist S. O. Y. Keita of Badarian crania in predynastic upper Egypt found that the predynastic Badarian series clusters much closer with the tropical African series than European samples. In 1949, Diop registered a proposed title for a Doctor of Letters thesis, "The Cultural Future of African thought," under the direction of Professor Gaston Bachelard. First, that all political prisoners be released, and, secondly, that discussions be opened on government ideas and programs, not on the distribution of government posts. But what counts in reality is the phenotype. This argument remains a hallmark of Diop's contribution. Die Beziehungen zwischen Ägypten und Griechenland bildeten einen Schwerpunkt seiner Forschung. 1951 legte Diop seine Dissertation an der Universität von Paris vor. From 1956, he taught physics and chemistry in two Paris lycees as an assistant master, before moving to the College de France.  In Paris, Diop studied under André Aymard, professor of History and later Dean of the Faculty of Letters at the University of Paris and he said that he had "gained an understanding of the Greco-Latin world as a student of Gaston Bachelard, Frédéric Joliot-Curie, André Leroi-Gourhan, and others".  Diop's work has posed important questions about the cultural bias inherent in scientific research.  Diop also wrote a chapter entitled "Origin of the ancient Egyptians", in the UNESCO General History of Africa. Obenga, Théophile. , Diop's theory on variability is also supported by a number of scholars mapping human genes using modern DNA analysis. "Apportionment of Racial Diversity"; Keita and Kittles, "The Persistence...", op. Diop argues for the need to build a capable continental army, able to defend the continent and its people and proposes a plan for the development of Africa's raw materials and industrialization.  He obtained the colonial equivalent of the metropolitan French baccalauréat in Senegal before moving to Paris to study for a degree.. (1993), "La parenté génétique entre l'egyptien pharaonique et des langues négro-africaines moderns: L’exemple du duala", pp. This approach is associated with scholars who question the validity of race as a biological concept.  In trying to remove Berber and Semitic languages from Greenberg's Afroasiatic family and ignoring real differences between African language groups, Diop and his collaborators have created an artificial language group. 27 (1970–1972), pp. Cheikh Anta Diop, "Evolution of the Negro world". Cheikh Anta Diop Diop is on Facebook. Dezember 1923 in Théytou, in der Region Diourbel (Senegal); † 1986 in Dakar) war einer der bekanntesten Ägyptologen des afrikanischen Kontinents. In diesem Zusammenhang wird der senegalesische Historiker, Anthropologe, Physiker und Politiker Cheikh Anta Diop wichtig (29. Join Facebook to connect with Cheikh Anta Diop Diop and others you may know. In protest at the refusal of the Senghor administration to release political prisoners, Diop remained largely absent from the political scene from 1966 to 1975. 88–93. View Elhadji Ndao’s full profile. Diop focuses on Africa, not Greece. " The movement identified as a key task restoring the African national consciousness, which they argued had been warped by slavery and colonialism. In a 2004 study, 58 native inhabitants from upper Egypt were sampled for mtDNA. , The linguistic research of Diop and his school have been criticised by Henry Tourneux, a linguist specialising in the Fula language.